1            Qinshan Nuclear Power Base

Qinshan Nuclear Power Base is located on a peninsula at the Hai Yan County, Zhejiang Province, on the northern shore of Hangzhou Bay.  It is about 90 km from Hangzhou and 120 km from Shanghai.  It is about 10 km west of the nearest town Haiyan.

The site contains three operating nuclear power stations, namely Qinshan 1, Qinshan 2 and Qinshan 3, and one nuclear power station Qinshan 2 Phase 2 under construction.  China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) is the majority shareholder, if not the sole shareholder, of these 3 power stations.  At the site, Qinshan 2 is 3 km south of Qinshan 1, and Qinshan 3 is 0.8 km east of Qinshan 1.

1.1            Qinshan Nuclear Power Station

Qinshan Nuclear Power Station, also known as Qinshan 1 Nuclear Power Station, is the first civil nuclear power station in Mainland China.  It is a single 300 MW PWR nuclear power station using indigenous technology.  About 95% of the equipment of Qinshan Nuclear Power Station was designed and manufactured in the Mainland.  The remaining 5% of the equipment was imported, being mainly major items.

Qinshan Nuclear Power Station began construction in 1985, reaching first criticality in October 1991 and commercial operation in April 1994.  The construction cost was RMB 1.6 billion.

Qinshan Nuclear Power Station operates a 15 month fuel cycle.  Its cumulative capacity factor since commercial operation is about 70% by the end of 2007, with recent annual capacity factors at about 90%.

1.2            Qinshan 2 Nuclear Power Station

Qinshan 2 Nuclear Power Station is an indigenous development based on French technology.  It is a twin 650 MW class PWR nuclear power station designated as CNP 650.  It has many similarities to the Framatome M310 series though having only two primary coolant loops and not three.  It is developed upon proven technology, based on national standards while conforming to international practices.  Each unit has a gross output nominally at 670 MW, with a maximum at 690 MW, making it the largest two-primary loop PWR design.  It achieved 55% localization in construction and has a planned life of 40 years while extendable to 60 years. 

The station began construction in 1996, with the first unit reaching commercial operation in 2002 and the second unit in 2004.  The investment cost was RMB 14.4 billion.

Its annual capacity factor is typically above 80% after reaching full commercial operation in 2004.

1.3            Qinshan 3 Nuclear Power Station

Qinshan 3 Nuclear Power Station was built by AECL of Canada as a turn-key project.  It is a twin-700 MW class Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear power station, using Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) technology.  It has the following salient features:

The station began construction in 1998, with the first unit reaching commercial operation in 2002 and the second unit in 2003.  The investment cost was about USD 2.6 billion.

Its annual capacity factor is typically above 80% after reaching full commercial operation in 2004.

1.4       Site development

Construction commenced for Qinshan 2 Nuclear Power Station (Phase 2) in 2006, for another twin 650 MW class PWR nuclear power station based on the same design as Qinshan 2 Nuclear Power Station.  Phase 2 is planned for completion in 2010 and with 70% localization in contents.

A plot of land at about 0.6km south west to Qinshan 1 Nuclear Power Station, known as Fanjiashan, has been earmarked for a twin CNP 1000 PWR nuclear power station.  The CNP 1000 PWR is being developed by CNNC.  It is a single unit 1000 MW class 3-primary loop PWR taking experience gained from operating PWRs in China.  It carries the following specifications:

1.5            Technical Data of the nuclear power stations at Qinshan

 

Qinshan Nuclear Power Station

Qinshan 2 Nuclear Power Station

Qinshan 3 Nuclear Power Station

Reactor Type

PWR

PWR

PHWR

Reactor Model

CNNC

CNNC CNP 650

AECL CANDU 6

No of generating units

1

2

2

 

 

 

 

Power

 

 

 

NSSS thermal power

966

 

2064

Gross electrical power

300

650

750

Net electrical power

288

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reactor core and fuel

 

 

 

Active core height/ length

2.9m

2.9m

5.9m

Active core diameter

2.5m

 

 

Fuel inventory

40.8 t Heavy Metal

 

87.6 t Heavy Metal

Number of assemblies/ bundle

121

 

4560

Fuel

UO2

UO2

UO2

Fuel enrichment, initial core

2.4%, 2.67%, 3.0%

2.4%, 2.67%, 3.0%

0.7%

Fuel enrichment, reload

 

 

0.7%

Number of fuel rods per assembly/bundle

204

225

37

Fuel rod configuration

15X15 square

15X15 square

Cylindrical cluster

Fuel cycle length

15 months

 

N/A

 

 

 

 

Reactor cooling system

 

 

 

Coolant

Light water (H2O)

Light water (H2O)

Heavy water (D2O)

Operating pressure

155 bar

 

115 bar

Core inlet coolant temperature

288.8C

 

266C

Core outlet coolant temperature

315.2C

 

310C

Coolant mass flow

24000 t/h

 

32800 t/h

No of loops

2

2

2

No of primary pumps

2

2

4

No of steam generators

2

2

4

 

 

 

 

Reactor pressure vessel

Upright cylindrical

Upright cylindrical

Horizontal cylindrical pressure tubes

 

 

 

 

Steam Generators

Upright, U-tube

Upright, U-tube

Upright, U-tube

 

 

 

 

Containment

Pre-stressed concrete cylindrical, single shell

Pre-stressed concrete cylindrical, single shell

Pre-stressed concrete cylindrical, single shell

 

 

 

 

Steam cycle

 

 

 

Steam flow rate

1870 t/h

 

3719 t/h

Steam pressure

(SG outlet)

51.9 bar

 

47.0 bar

Steam moisture (SG outlet)

 

 

0.25%

Steam temperature (SG outlet)

 

 

260C

Feedwater temperature

(SG inlet)

 

 

187C

 

 

 

 

Turbine Generator

 

 

 

Turbine

1 double flow HP

2 double flow LP

1 double flow HP

2 double flow LP

1 double flow HP

2 double flow LP

Generator

300 MW

650 MW

750 MW

Speed

3000 rpm

3000 rpm

3000 rpm

 

 

 

 

Condenser

Sea water cooling

Sea water cooling

Sea water cooling

   

Last Update:  August 2008

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Copyright @  The Hong Kong Institution of Engineers , 2008.  All rights reserved.